From A New System of Domestic Cookery
The Dutch way to salt Beef.
Take a lean piece of beef; rub it well with treacle or brown sugar, and let it be turned often. In three days wipe it, and salt it with common salt and saltpetre beaten fine: rub these well in, and turn it every day for a fortnight. Roll it tight in a coarse cloth, and press it under a large weight; hang it to dry in a wood-smoke, but turn it upside down every clay. Boil it in pump-water, and press it will grate or cut into shivers, like Dutch beef.
Choose a piece of thick flank of a line heifer or ox. Cut into long slices some fat bacon, but quite free from yellow; let each bit be near an inch thick: dip them into vinegar, and then into a seasoning ready prepared of salt, black pepper, allspice, and a clove, all in fine powder, with parsley, chives, thyme, savoury, and knotted marjoram, shred as small as possible, and well mixed. With a sharp knife make holes deep enough to let in the larding; then rub the beef over with the seasoning, and bind it up tight with tape. Set it in a well-tinned pot over a fire or rather stove: three or four onions must be fried brown and put to the beef, with two or three carrots, one turnip, a head or two of celery, and a small quantity of water; let it simmer gently ten or twelve hours, or till extremely tender, turning the meat twice.
Put the gravy into a pan, remove the fat, keep the beef covered, then put them together, and add a glass of port wine. Take off the tape, and serve with the vegetables; or you may strain them off, and send them up cut into dice for garnish. Onions roasted, and then stewed with the gravy, are a great improvement. A tea-cupful of vinegar should be stewed with the beef.
A Fricandeau of Beef.
Take a nice bit of lean beaf; lard it with bacon seasoned with pepper, salt, cloves, mace, and allspice. Put it into a stew-pan with a pint of broth, a glass of white wine, a bundle of parsley, all sorts of sweet herbs, a clove of garlick, a shalot or two, four cloves, pepper, and salt. When the meat is become tender, cover it close: skim the sauce well, and strain it: set it on the fire, and let it boil till it is reduced to a glaze. Glaze the larded side with this, and serve the meat on sorrel-sauce.
To stew a Rump of Beef.
Wash it well; and season it high with pepper, Cayenne, salt, allspice, three cloves, and a blade of mace, all in fine-powder. Bind it up tight, and lay it into a pot that will just hold it. Fry three large onions sliced, and put them to it, with three carrots, two turnips, a shalot, four cloves, a blade of mace, and some celery. Cover the meat with good beef-broth, or weak gravy. Simmer it as gently as possible for several hours, till quite tender. Clear off the fat: and add to the gravy half a pint of port wine, a glass of vinegar, and a large spoonful of ketchup; simmer half an hour, and serve in a deep dish. Half a pint of table-beer may be added. The herbs to be used should be burnet, tarragon, parsley, thyme, basil, savoury, marjoram, pennyroyal, knotted marjoram, and some chives if you can get them, but observe to proportion the quantities to the pungency of the several sorts; let there be a good handful altogether.
Garnish with carrots, turnips, or truffles and morels, or pickles of different colours, cut small, and laid in little heaps separate; chopped parsley, chives, beet-root, &c. If, when clone, the gravy is too much to fill the dish, take only a part to season for serving, but the less water the better; and to increase the richness, add a few beef-bones and shanks of mutton in stewing.
A spoonful or two of made mustard is a great improvement to the gravy.
Rump roasted is excellent; but in the country it is generally sold whole with the edgebone, or cut across instead of lengthways as in London, where one piece is for boiling, and the rump for stewing or roasting. This must be attended to, the whole being too large to dress together.
Stewed Rump another way.
Half-roast it; then put it into a large pot with three pints of water, one of small-beer, one of port wine, some salt, three or four spoonfuls of vinegar, two of ketchup, a bunch of sweet herbs of various kinds (such as burnet, tarragon, parsley, thyme, basil, savoury, pennyroyal, marjoram, knotted marjoram, and a leaf or two of sago), some onions, cloves, and Cayenne; cover it close, and simmer till quite tender: two or three hours will do it When done lay it into a deep dish, set it over hot water, and cover it close. Skim the gravy; put in a few pickled-mushrooms, truffles, morels, and oysters if agreeable, but it is very good without; thicken the gravy with flour and tatter, and heat it with the above, and pour over the beef. Forcemeat-balls of veal, anchovies, bacon, suet, herbs, spice, bread, and eggs, to bind, are a great improvement.
To stew Brisket of Beef.
Put the part that has the hard fat into a stew-pot with a small quantity of water: let it boil up, and skim it thoroughly; then add carrots, turnips, onions, celery, and a few pepper-corns. Stew till extremely tender; then take out the flat bones, and remove all the fat from the soup. Either serve that and the meat in a tureen; or the soup alone, and the meat on a dish, garnished with some vegetables. The following sauce is much admired, served with the beef;--Take half a pint of the soup, and mix it with a spoonful of ketchup, a glass of port wine, a tea-spoonful of made mustard, a little flour, a bit of butter, and salt: boil all together a few minutes, then pour it round the meat. Chop capers, walnuts, red cabbage, pickled cucumbers, and chives or parsley, small, and put in separate heaps over it.
To press Beef.
Salt a bit of brisket, thin part of the flank, or the tops of the ribs, with salt and saltpetre five days, then boil it gently till extremely tender: put it under a great weight, or in a cheese-press, till perfectly cold.
It eats excellently cold, and for sandwiches.
To make Hunters' Beef.
To a round of beef that weighs twenty-five pounds, take three ounces of saltpetre, three ounces of the coarsest sugar, an ounce of cloves, a nutmeg, half an ounce of allspice, and three handfuls of common salt, all in the finest powder.
The beef should hang two or three days; then rub the above well into it, and turn and rub it every day for two or three weeks. The bone must be taken out at first. When to be dressed, dip it into cold water, to take off the loose spice, bind it up tight with tape, and put it into a pan with a tea-cupful of water at the bottom, cover the top of the meat with shred suet, and the pan with a brown crust and paper, and bake it five or six hours. When cold, take off the paste and tape.
The gravy is very fine; and a little of it adds greatly to the flavour of any hash, soup, &c.
Both the gravy and the beef will keep some time. The meat should be cut with a very sharp knife, and quite smooth, to prevent waste.
An excellent Mode of dressing Beef.
Hang three ribs three or four days; take out the bones from the whole length, sprinkle it with salt, roll the meat tight, and roast it. Nothing can look nicer. The above done with spices, &c. and baked as hunters' beef, is excellent.
To collar Beef.
Choose the thin end of the flank of fine mellow beef, but not too fat; lay it into a dish with salt and saltpetre, turn and rub it every day for a week, and keep it cool. Then take out every bone and gristle, remove the skill of the inside part, and cover it thick with the following seasoning cut small: a large handful of parsley, the same of sage, some thyme, marjoram, and pennyroyal, pepper, salt, and allspice. Roll the meat up as tight as possible, and bind it, then boil it gently for seven or eight hours. A cloth must be put round before the tape. Put the beef under a good weight while hot, without undoing it; the shape will then be oval. Part of a breast of veal rolled in with the beef, looks and eats very well.
Should be cut from a rump that has hung a few days. Broil them over a very clear or charcoal fire: put into the dish a little minced shalot, and a table-spoonful of ketchup; and rub a bit of butter on the steak the moment of serving. It should be turned often, that the gravy may not be drawn out on either side.
This dish requires to be eaten so hot and fresh-done, that it is not in perfection if served with any thing else. Pepper and salt should be added when taking it off the fire.
Beef-steaks and Oyster-sauce.
Strain off the liquor from the oysters, and throw them into cold water to take off the grit, while you simmer the liquor with a bit of mace and lemon-peel; then put the oysters in, stew them a few minutes, and a little cream if you have it, and some butter rubbed in a bit of flour: let them boil up once; and have rump-steaks, well seasoned and broiled, ready for throwing the oyster-sauce over, moment you are to serve.
Beat them a little with a rolling-pin, flour and season, then fry with sliced onion of a fine light brown; lay the steaks into a stew-pan, and pour as much boiling water over them as will serve for sauce: stew them very gently half an hour, and add a spoonful of ketchup, or walnut-liquor, before you serve.
Cut a fine large steak from a rump that has been well hung, or it will do from any tender part: beat it, and season with pepper, salt and onion; lay it in an iron stew-pan that has a cover to fit quite close, and set it by the side of the fire without water. Take care it does not burn, but it must have a strong heat: in two or three hours it will be quite tender, and then serve with its own gravy.
Cut thin slices of beef from the rump, or any other tender part, and divide them into pieces three inches long; beat them with the blade of a knife, and flour them. Fry the collops quick in butter two minutes; then lay them, into a small stew-pan, and cover them with a pint of gravy; add a bit of butter rubbed in Hour, pepper, salt, the least bit of shalot shred as fine as possible, half a walnut, four small pickled cucumbers, and a tea-spoonful of capers cut small. Take care that it does not boil; and serve the stew in a very hot covered dish.
Simmer them in water several hours, till they will peel; then cut the palates into slices, or leave them whole, as you choose; and stew them in a rich gravy till as tender as possible. Before you serve, season them with Cayenne, salt, and ketchup. If the gravy was drawn clear, add also some butter and flour.
If to be served white, boil them in milk, and stew them in a fricassee-sauce; adding cream, butter, flour, and mushroom-powder, and a little pounded mace.
Beef-Cakes for a side-dish of dressed Meat.
Pound some beef that is underdone with a little fat bacon, or ham; season with pepper, salt, and a little shalot, or garlick: mix them well; and make into small cakes three inches long, and half as wide and thick: fry them a light brown, and serve them in a good thick gravy.
To pot Beef.
Take two pounds of lean beef, rub it with salt-petre, and let it lie one night; then salt with common salt, and cover it with water four days in a small pan. Dry it with a cloth, and season with black pepper; lay it into as small a pan as will hold it, cover it with coarse paste, and bake It five hours in a very cool oven. Put no liquor in.
When cold, pick out the strings and fat; beat the meat very fine with a quarter of a pound of fine butter just warm, but not oiled, and as much of the gravy as will make it into a paste; put it into very small pots, and cover them with melted butter.
Another way.--Take beef that has been dressed, either boiled or roasted; beat it in a mortar with some pepper, salt, a few cloves, grated nutmeg, and a little fine butter just warm.
This eats as well, but the colour is not so fine. It is a good way for using the remains of a large joint.
To dress the Inside of a cold Sirloin Beef.
Cut out all the meat, and a little fat, into pieces as thick as your finger, and two inches long: dredge it with flour; and fry in butter, of a nice brown: drain the butter from the meat, and toss it up in a rich gravy, seasoned with pepper, salt, anchovy, and shalot. Do not let it boil on any account. Before you serve, add two spoonfuls of vinegar. Garnish with crimped parsley.
Fricassee of cold roast-Beef.
Cut the beef into very thin slices, shred a handful of parsley very small, cut an onion into quarters, and put all together into a stew-pan, with a piece of butter and some strong broth: season with salt and pepper, and simmer very gently a quarter of an hour; then mix into it the yolks of two eggs, a glass of port wine, and a spoonful of vinegar; stir it quick, rub the dish with shalot, and turn the fricassee into it.
To dress cold Beef that has not been done enough, called Beef-Olives.
Cut slices half an inch thick, and four inches square; lay on them a forcemeat of crumbs of bread, shalot, a little suet, or fat, pepper, and salt. Roll them, and fasten with a small skewer: put them into a stew-pan with some gravy made of the beef-bones, or the gravy of the meat, and a spoonful or two of water, and stew them till tender. Fresh meat will do.
To dress the same, called Sanders.
Mince beef, or mutton, small, with onion, pepper, and salt; add a little gravy; put it into scallop-shells, or saucers, making them three parts full, and fill them up with potatoes, mashed with a little cream; put a bit of butter on the top, and brown them in an oven or before the fire, or with a salamander.
To dress the same, called Cecils.
Mince any kind of meat, crumbs of bread, a good deal of onion, some anchovies, lemon-peel, salt, nutmeg, chopped parsley, pepper, and a bit of butter warm, and mix these over a fire for a few minutes: when cool enough, make them up into balls of the sue and shape of a turkey's egg, with an egg; sprinkle them with fine crumbs, and then fry them of a yellow brown, and serve with gravy as before directed for Beef-olives.
To mince Beef.
Shred the underdone part fine, with some of the fat; put it into a small stew-pan, with some onion or shalot (a very little will do), a little water, pepper, and salt: boil it till the onion is quite soft; then put some of the gravy of the meat to it, and the mince. Don't let it boil. Have a small hot dish with sippets of bread ready, and pour the mince into it, but first mix a large spoonful of vinegar with it: if shalot-vinegar is used, there will be no need of the onion nor the raw shalot.
To hash Beef.
Do it the same as in the last receipt; only the meat is to be in slices, and you may add a spoonful of walnut-liquor or ketchup.
Observe, that it is owing to boiling bashes or minces, that they get hard. All sorts of stews, or meat dressed a second time, should be only simmered; and this last only hot through.
Cut a slice of underdone boiled beef three inches thick, and a litle fat; stew it in half a pint of water, a glass of white wine, a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion, and a bay-leaf: season it with three cloves pounded, and pepper, till the liquor is nearly wasted away, turning it once. When cold, serve it. Strain off the gravy, and mix it with a little vinegar for sauce.
Round of Beef
Should be carefully salted, and wet with the pickle for eight or ten days. The bone should be cut out first, and the beef skewered and tied up to make it quite round. It may be stuffed with parsley, if approved; in which case the holes to admit the parsley must be made with a sharp-pointed knife, and the parsley coarsely cut and stuffed-in tight. As soon as it boils it should be skimmed, and afterwards kept boiling very gently.
Rolled Beef that equals Hare.
Take the inside of a large sirloin, soak it in a glass of port wine and a glass of vinegar mixed, for forty-eight hours; have ready a very fine stuffing, and bind it up tight. Roast it on a hanging-spit; and baste it with a glass of port wine, the same quantity of vinegar, and a tea-spoonful of pounded allspice. Larding it improves the look and flavour; serve with a rich gravy in the dish; currant-jelly and melted-butter, in tureens.
To roast a Leg of Pork.
Choose a small leg of fine young pork: cut a slit in the knuckle with a sharp knife; and Jill the space with. sage and onion chopped, and a little pepper and salt. When half-done, score the skin in slices, but don't cut deeper than the outer rind.
Apple-sauce and potatoes should be served to eat with it.
To boil a Leg of Fork.
Salt it eight or ten days: when it is to be dressed, weigh it; let it lie half an hour in cold water to make it white; allow a quarter of an hour for every pound, and half an hour over, from the time it boils up; skim it as soon as it boils, and frequently after. Allow water enough. Save some of it to make peas-soup. Some boil it in a very nice cloth, floured; which gives a very delicate look. It should be small and of a tine grain.
Serve peas-pudding and turnips with it.
Loin and Neck of Pork.
Roast them. Cut the skin of the loin across, at distences of half an inch, with a sharp pen-knife.
Shoulders and Breasts of Pork.
Put them into pickle, or salt the shoulder as a leg; when very nice, they may be roasted.
Rolled Neck of Pork.
Bone it; put a forcemeat of chopped sage, a very few crumbs of bread, salt, pepper, and two or three berries of allspice, over the inside; then roll the meat as tight as you can, and roast it slowly, and at a good distance at first.
Spring or Forehand of Pork.
Cut out the bone; sprinkle salt, pepper, and sage dried, over the inside; but first warm a little butter to baste it, and then flour it: roll the pork tight, and tie it; then roast by a hanging jack. About two hours will do it.
Should be basted with a very little butter and a little flour, and then sprinkled with dried sage crumbled, Apple-sauce, and potatoes, for roasted pork.
Is usually very hard; the best way to prevent this is, to put it into as much cold water as will cover it, and let it boil up; then instantly take it off, and put it into a Dutch oven; a very few minutes will do it. Remember to rub butter over it, and then flour it, before you put it to the fire.
Blade-bone of Pork
Is taken from the bacon-hog; the less meat left on it in moderation, the better. It is to be broiled; and when just done, pepper and salt it. Put to it a piece of butter, and a tea-spoonful of mustard; and serve it covered, quickly. This is a Somersetshire dish.
To dress Pork as Lamb
Kill a young pig of four or five months old; cut up the fore-quarter for roasting as you do lamb, and truss the shank close. The other parts will make delicate pickled pork; or steaks, pies, &c.
Cut them from a loin or neck, and of middling thickness; pepper and broil them, turning them often; when nearly done, put on salt, rub a bit of butter over, and serve the moment they are taken off the fire, a few at a lime.
Chop fat and lean of pork together; season it with sage, pepper, and salt, and you may add two or three berries of allspice: half Jill hog's guts that have been soaked and made extremely clean: or the meat may be kept in a very small pan, closely covered; and so rolled and dusted with a very little flour before it is fried. Serve on stewed red cabbage; or mash potatoes put in a form, brown with salamander, and garnish with the above; they must be pricked with a fork before they are dressed, or they will burst.
An excellent sausage to eat cold.
Season fat and lean pork with some salt, saltpetre, black pepper, and allspice, all in fine powder, and rub into the meat: the sixth day cut it small; and mix with it some shred shalot or garlick, as fine as possible. Have ready an ox-gut that has been scoured, salted, and soaked well, and fill it with the above stuffing; tie up the ends, and hang it to smoke as you would hams, but first wrap it in a fold or two of old muslin. It must be high-dried. Some eat it without boiling, but others like it boiled first. The skin should be tied in different places, so as to make each link about eight or nine inches long.
Spadbury's Oxford Sausages.
Chop a pound and a half of pork, and the same of veal, cleared of skin and sinews; add three quarters of a pound of beef-suet; mince, and mix them; steep the crumb of a penny-loaf in water, and mix it with the meat, with also a little dried sage, pepper, and salt.
To cure Hams.
Hang them a day or two; then sprinkle them with a little salt, and drain them another day; pound an ounce and a half of saltpetre, the same quantity of bay-salt, half an ounce of sal-prunel, and a pound of the coarsest sugar. Mix these well; and rub them into each ham every day for four days, and turn it. If a small one, turn it every day for three weeks; if a large one, a week longer; but don't rub after four days. Before you dry it, drain and cover with bran. Smoke it ten days.
Another way.--Choose the leg of a hog that is fat and well-fed; hang it as above; if large, put to it a pound of bay-salt, four ounces of salt-petre, a pound of the coarsest sugar, and a handful of common salt, all in fine powder, and rub it thoroughly. Lay the rind downwards, and cover the fleshy part with the salts. Baste it as often as you can with the pickle; the more the better. Keep it four weeks, turning it every day. Drain it, and throw bran over it; then hang it in a chimney where wood is burnt, and turn it sometimes for ten days.
Another way.--Hang the ham, and sprinkle it with salt as above; then rub it every day with the following, in fine powder: half a pound of common salt, the same quantity of bay-salt, two ounces of saltpetre, and two ounces of black pepper, mixed with a pound and a half of treacle. Turn it twice a day in the pickle, for three weeks. Lay it into a pail of water for one night, wipe it quite dry, and smoke it two or three weeks.
Another way, that gives a high flavour.--When the weather will permit, hang the ham three days; mix an ounce of saltpetre with a quarter of a pound of bay-salt, the same quantity of common salt, and also of coarse sugar, and a quart of strong beer; boil them together, and pour them immediately upon the ham; turn it twice a day in the pickle for three weeks. An ounce of black pepper, and the same quantity of allspice, in fine powder, added to the above, will give still more flavour. Cover it with bran when wiped: and smoke it from three to four weeks, as you approve; the latter will make it harder and give it more of the flavour of Westphalia. Sew hams in hessings (that is, coarse wrappers), if to be smoked where there is a strong fire.
A method of giving a still higher flavour.--Sprinkle the ham with salt, after it has hung two or three days; let it drain; make a pickle of a quart of strong beer, half a pound of treacle, an ounce of coriander seeds, two ounces of juniper-berries, an ounce of pepper, the same quantity of allspice, an ounce of saltpetre, half an ounce of sal-prunel, a handful of common salt, and a head of shalot, all pounded or cut fine. Boil these all together a few minutes, and pour them over the ham: this quantity is for one of ten pounds. Rub and turn it every day, for a fortnight; then sew it up in a thin linen bag, and smoke it three weeks. Take care to drain it from the pickle, and rub it in bran, before drying.
Soups & Gravies
Colouring for Soups or Gravies.
Put four ounces of lump sugar, a gill of water, and half an ounce of the finest butter, into a small tosser, and set it over a gentle fire. Stir it with a wooden spoon, till of a bright brown. Then add half a pint of water; boil, skim, and when cold, bottle and cork it close. Add to soup or gravy as much of this as will give a proper colour.
A clear brown Stock for Gravy-soup or Gravy.
Put a knuckle of veal, a pound of lean beef, and a pound of the lean of a gammon of bacon, all sliced, into a stew-pan with two or three scraped carrots, two onions, two turnips, two heads of celery sliced, and two quarts of water. Stew the meat quite tender, but do not let it brown. When thus prepared, it will serve either for suup, or brown or white gravy; if for brown gravy, put some of the above colouring, and boil a few minutes.
An excellent Soup.
Take a scrag or knuckle of veal, slices of undressed gammon of bacon, onions, mace, and a small quantity of water; simmer till very strong; and lower it with a good beef-broth made the day before, and stewed till the meat is done to rags. Add cream, vermicelli, and almonds, as will be directed in the next receipt, and a roll.
An excellent white Soup.
Take a scrag of mutton, a knuckle of veal after cutting off as much meat as will make collops, two or three shank-bones of mutton nicely cleaned, and a quarter of a pound of very fine undrest lean gammon of bacon; with a bunch of sweet herbs, a piece of fresh lemon-peel, two or three onions, three blades of mace, and a desert-spoonful of white pepper; boil all in three quarts of water, till the meat falls quite to pieces. Next day take off the fat, clear the jelly from the sediment, and put it into a sauce-pan of the nicest tin. If macaroni is used, it should be added soon enough to get perfectly tender, after soaking in cold water. Vermicelli may be added after the thickening, as it requires less time to do. Have ready the thickening, which is to be made as follows:
Blanch a quarter of a pound of sweet almonds, and beat them to a paste in a marble mortar, with a spoonful of water to prevent their oiling; mince a large slice of drest veal or chicken, and beat with it a piece of stale white bread; add all this to a pint of thick cream, a bit of fresh lemon-peel, and a blade of mace, in the finest powder. Boil it a few minutes; add to it a pint of soup, and strain and pulp it through a coarse sieve: this thickening is then fit for putting to the rest, which should boil for half an hour afterwards.
A plainer White Soup.
Two or three pints of soup may be made of a small knuckle of veal, with seasoning as directed in the last article; and both served together, with the addition of a quarter of a pint of good milk. Two spoonfuls of cream, and a little ground rice, will give it a proper thickness.
Scald and clean three or four sets of goose or duck giblets. set them to stew, with a pound or two of gravy-beef, scrag of mutton, or the bone of a knuckle of veal; an ox-tail, or some shanks of mutton; with three onions, a large bunch of sweet herbs, a ten-spoonful of white pepper, and a large spoonful of salt. Put five pints of water, and simmer till the gizzards (which must be each in four pieces) are quite tender: skim nicely, and add a quarter of a pint of cream, two tea-spoonfuls of mushroom-powder, and an ounce of butter mixed with a desert-spoonful of flour. Let it boil a few minutes, and serve with the giblets. It may be seasoned, instead of cream, with two glasses of sherry or Madeira, a large spoonful of ketchup. and some Cayenne. When in the tureen, add salt.
Boil a pound of the best macaroni in a quart of good slock till quite tender; then take out half, and put it into another stew-pot. To the remainder add some more stock, and boil it till you can pulp all the macaroni through a tine sieve. Then add together that, the two liquors, a pint or more of cream boiling-hot, the macaroni that first taken out, and half a pound of grated Parmesan cheese; make it hot, but do not let it boil. Serve it with the crust of a French roll cut into the size of a shilling.
A Pepper-pot, to be served in a Tureen.
To three quarts of water put vegetables according to the season; in summer, peas, lettuce, and spinach; in winter, carrots, turnips, celery, and onions in both. Cut small, and stew with two pounds of neck of mutton, or a fowl, and a pound of pickled pork, in three quarts of water, till quite tender.
On first boiling, skim. Half an hour before serving, add a lobster, or crab, cleared from the bones. Season with suit and Cayenne. A small quantity of rice should be put in with the meat. Some people choose very small suet dumplings boiled with it. Should any fat rise, skim nicely, and put half a cup of water with a little flour.
Pepper-pot may be made of various things, and is understood to be a due proportion of fish, flesh, fowl, vegetables, and pulse.
Save the water of boiled perk or beef; and if too salt, put as much fresh water to it; or use fresh water entirely, with roast-beef bones, a ham or gammon-bone, or an anchovy or two. Simmer these with some good whole or split peas; the smaller the quantity of water at first, the better. Simmer till the peas will pulp through a colander; then set the pulp, and more of the liquor that boiled the peas, with two carrots, a turnip, a leek, and a stick of celery cut into bits, to stew till all is quite tender. The last requires less time; an hour will do for it.
When ready, put fried bread cut into dice, dried mint rubbed fine, pepper, and (if wanted) salt, into the tureen, and pour the soup in.
In shelling the peas, divide the old from the young; put the old ones, with an ounce of butter, a pint of water, the outside leaves of a lettuce or two, two onions, pepper, and salt, to stew till you can pulp the peas; and when you have done so, put to the liquor that stewed them some more water, the hearts and tender stalks of the lettuces, the young peas, a handful of spinach cut small, and salt and pepper to relish properly, and stew till quite soft. If the soup is too thin, or not rich enough, either of these faults may be removed by ounce or two of butter, mixed with a spoonful of rice or wheat-flour, and boiled with it half an hour. Before serving, boil some green mint shred fine in the soup. When there is plenty of vegetables, no meat is necessary; but if meat be preferred, a pig's foot, or ham-bone, &c. may be boiled with the old peas, which is called the stock. More butter than is mentioned above may be used with advantage, if the soup is required to be very rich.
When peas first come in, or are very young, the stock may be made of the shells washed, and boiled till they will pulp with the above: more thickening will then be wanted.
Wash and soak a leg of beef; break the bone, and set it on the fire with a gallon of water, a large bunch of sweet herbs, two large onions sliced and fried a fine brown (but not burnt), two blades of mace, three cloves, twenty berries of allspice, and forty black peppers. Stew till the soup is as rich as you choose; then take out the meat, which will be fit for the servants' table with a little of the gravy. Next day take off the cake of fat; which will serve for basting, or for common pie-crust. Have ready such vegetables as you choose to serve. Cut carrots, turnips, and celery, small, and simmer till tender: some people do not like them to be sent to table, only the flavour of them. Boil vermicelli a quarter of an hour; and add to it a large spoonful of soy, and one of mushroom-ketchup. A French roll should be made hot, put into the soup till moist through, and served in the tureen.
Pare and slice five or six cucumbers; and add to these the inside of as many cos-lettuces, a sprig or two of mint, two or three onions, some pepper and salt, a pint and a half of young peas, and a little parsley. Put these, with half a pound of fresh butter, into a sauce-pan, to stew in their own liquor, near a gentle fire, half an hour; then pour two quarts of boiling-water to the vegetables, and stew them two hours; rub down a little flour into a tea-cupful of water, boil it with the rest fifteen or twenty minutes, and serve it.
Another way.--Peel and slice six large onions, six potatoes, six carrots, and four turnips; fry them in half a pound of butter, and pour on them four quarts of boiling water. Toast a crust of bread as brown and hard as possible, but do not burn it; put that, some celery, sweet herbs, white pepper, and salt, to the above; stew it all gently four hours, then strain it through a coarse cloth: have ready sliced carrot, celery, and a little turnip, and add to your liking; and stew them tender in the soup. If approved, you may add an anchovy, and a spoonful of ketchup.
Put some beef-bones, with four quarts of the liquor in which a leg of mutton or beef has been boiled, two large onions, a turnip, pepper, and salt, into a sauce-pan, and stew for three hours. Have ready six large carrots scraped and cut thin; strain the soup on them, and stew them till soft enough to pulp through a hair sieve or coarse cloth: then boil the pulp with the soup, which is to be as thick as peas-soup. Use two wooden spoons fo rub the carrots through. Make the soup the day before it is to be used. Add Cayenne. Pulp only the red part of the carrot, and not the yellow.
Into the water that has boiled a leg or neck of mutton, put carrots, turnips, and (if you have one) a shank-bone, and simmer two hours. Strain it on six onions, first sliced and fried of a light brown; simmer three hours, skim it carefully, and serve. Put into it a little roll, or fried bread.
Shred two handfuls of spinach, a turnip, two onion, a head of celery, two carrots, and a little thyme and parsley. Put all into a stew-pot, with a bit of butter the size of a walnut, and a pint of broth, or the water in which meat has been boiled; stew till the vegetables are quite tender; work them through a coarse cloth or sieve with a spoon; then to the pulp of the vegetables, and liquor, put a quart of fresh water, pepper, and salt, and boil all together. Have ready some suet-dumplings, the size of a walnut; and before you put the soup into the tureen, put them into it. The suet must not be shred too fine; and take care that it is quite fresh.
Put the water that has boiled a leg of mutton into a stew-pot, with a quantity of chopped leeks, and pepper and salt; simmer them an hour: then mix some oatmeal with a little cold water quite smooth, pour it into the soup, set it on a slow part of the fire, and let it simmer gently; but take care that it does not burn to the bottom.
Boil half a pound of grated potatoes, a pound of beef sliced thin, a pint of grey peas, an onion, and three ounces of rice, in six pints of water, to five; strain it through a colander; then pulp the peas to it, and turn it into a sauce-pan again with two heads of celery sliced. Stew it tender, and add pepper and salt; and when you serve, add also fried bread.
Boil one or two knuckles of veal, one or two shins of beef, and three pounds of beef, in as much water only as will cover them. Take the marrow out of the bones; put any sort of spice you like, and three large onions. When the meat is done to rags, strain it off, and put it into a very cold place. When cold, take off the cake of fat (which will make crusts for servants' pies), put the soup into a double-bottomed tin sauce-pan, and set it on a pretty quick fire, but don't let it burn. It must boil fast and uncovered, and be stirred constantly, for eight hours. Put it into a pan, and let it stand in a cold place a day; then pour it into a round soup china-dish, and set the dish into a stew-pan of boiling water on a stove, and let it boil, and be now and then stirred, till the soup is thick and ropy; then it is enough. Pour it into the little round pint at the bottom of cups or basons turned upside-down, to form cakes; and when cold, turn them out on flannel to dry. Keep them in tin canisters. When they are to be used, melt them in boiling water; and if you wish the flavour of herbs or any thing else, boil it first, strain off the water, and melt the soup in it.
This is very convenient in the country, or at sea, where fresh meat is not always at hand; as by this means a bason of soup may be made in five minutes.
Melt half a pound of butter into a stew-pan, shake it round, and throw in six middling onions sliced. Shake the pan well for two or three minutes; then put to it five heads of celery, two handfuls of spinach, two cabbage-lettuces cut small, and some parsley. Shake the pan well for ten minutes; then put in, two quarts of water, some crusts of bread, a tea-spoonful of beaten pepper, three or four blades of mace; and if you have any white beet leaves, add a large handful of them cut small.
Boil gently an hour. Just before serving, beat-in two yolks of eggs and a large spoonful of vinegar.
Another.--Flour and fry a quart of green peas, four onions sliced, the coarse stalks of celery, a carrot, a turnip, and a parsnip; then pour on them three quarts of water. Let it simmer till the whole will pulp through a sieve. Then boil in it the best of the celery cut thin.
To draw Gravy that will keep a Week.
Cut lean beef thin, put it into a frying-pan without any butter, and set it on a fire covered, but take care it does not burn: let it stay till all the gravy that comes out of the meat is dried up into it again; put as much water as will cover the meat, and let that stew away. Then put to the meat a small quantity of water, herbs, onions, spice, and a bit of lean ham; simmer till it is rich, and keep it in a cool place. Don't take off the fat till going to be used.
Slice beef thin; broil a part of it over a very clear quick fire, just enough to give colour to the gravy, but not to dress it: put that and the raw into a very nicely tinned stew-pan, with two onions, a clove or two, whole black peppers, berries of allspice, and a bunch of sweet herbs: cover it with hot water, give it one boil, and skim it welt two or three times; then cover it, and simmer till quite strong.
Cullis, or brown Gravy.
Lay over the bottom of a stew-pan as much lean veal as will cover it an inch thick; then cover the veal with thin slices of undressed gammon, two or three onions, two or three bay-leaves, some sweet herbs, two blades of mace, and three cloves. Cover the stew-pan, and set it over a slow fire; but when the juices come out, let the fire be a little quicker. When the meat is of a fine brown, fill the pan with good beef-broth, boil and skim it, then simmer an hour: add a little water, mixed with as much flour as will make it properly thick: boil it half an hour, and strain it. This will keep a week.
Bechamel, or white Sauce.
Cut lean veal into small slice, and the same quantity of lean bacon or ham; put them into a stew-pan with a good piece of butter, an onion, a blade of mace, a few mushroom-buttons, a bit of thyme, and a bay-leaf; fry the whole over a very slow fire, but not to brown it; thicken it with flour; then put an equal quantity of good broth, and rich cream; let it boil half an hour, and stir it all the time; strain it through a soup-strainer.
A Gravy without Meat.
Put a glass of small beer, a glass of water, some pepper, salt, lemon-peel grated, a bruised clove or two, and a spoonful of walnut-pickle, or mushroom-ketchup, into a bason. Slice an onion, flour and fry it in a piece of butter till it is brown. Then turn all the above into a small tosser with the onion, and simmer it covered twenty minutes. Strain it off for use, and when cold take off the fat.
A rich Gravy.
Cut beef into thin slices, according to the quantity wanted; slice onions thin, and flour both; fry them of a light pale-brown, but don't on any account suffer them to get black: put them into a stew-pan, pour boiling water on the browning in the frying-pan, boil it up, and pour on the meat. Put to it a bunch of parsley, thyme, and savoury, a small bit of knotted marjoram, the same of taragon, some mace, berries of allspice, whole black peppers, a clove or two, and a bit of ham, or gammon of bacon. Simmer till you have extracted all the juices of the meat; and be sure to skim the moment it boils, and often after. If for a hare, or stewed fish, anchovy should be added.